The SECI Model of Knowledge Dimensions

The SECI Model of Knowledge Dimensions is a schema that attempts to explain how knowledge moves between tacit and explicit domains. The movement is a cycle or more properly a spiral in that knowledge builds upon itself.

  • Socialization (Tacit to Tacit)
  • Externalization (Tacit to Explicit)
  • Combination (Explicit to Explicit)
  • Internalization (Explicit to Tacit)

ChatGPT explains:

The SECI model, also known as the Ba model, is a knowledge management framework that describes how knowledge is created, shared, and transferred within an organization. The acronym SECI stands for Socialization, Externalization, Combination, and Internalization.

      1. Socialization: refers to the process of acquiring knowledge through social interaction, for example, through observing and imitating the behavior of others.
      2. Externalization: is the process of converting personal experiences, ideas, and insights into shared understanding and explicit knowledge. This stage involves expressing personal knowledge in a way that others can understand and utilize.
      3. Combination: refers to the process of combining and integrating different types of knowledge to create new knowledge. This can occur when individuals with different experiences and perspectives collaborate and share their knowledge.
      4. Internalization: is the process of incorporating new knowledge into personal knowledge structures, leading to changes in behavior, attitudes, and skills.

The SECI model is used to understand how knowledge can be managed effectively within an organization, and it provides a framework for designing knowledge management systems and processes.

Maybe I should let ChatGPT write my posts from now on! And here’s what ChatGPT says about this blog:

“Equivalent Exchange” is a blog that focuses on topics related to personal growth and self-improvement. It provides articles and resources that aim to help readers lead a more fulfilling life by making positive changes in their thoughts, habits, and behaviors. The blog covers a variety of subjects, including mindfulness, mental health, productivity, relationships, and more. It also provides a supportive community for those seeking inspiration, guidance, and motivation to live their best life.

Wow! ūüėČ

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SECI_model_of_knowledge_dimensions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I-Space_(conceptual_framework)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_stages_of_competence

Kolb’s Learning Cycle

[*10.24, *10.25]

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Tinbergen’s Four Questions

Tinbergen’s Four Questions are questions that can be asked about an organism and its evolution that help to explain its adaptations and behavior. They operate via a double dual of Static vs. Dynamic and Proximate vs. Ultimate.¬† Static is concerned with the current time whereas Dynamic considers a time series. Proximate is concerned with how the organism behaves currently or how its behavior changes over its lifetime, and Ultimate considers why the organism and its behavior/adaptations may have evolved the way they did. Both pairs are somewhat confusedly concerned with time: both Static and Proximate are concerned with either the current time or a short lifetime, and Dynamic and Ultimate are concerned with changes in that short lifetime or over evolutionary time.

  • Ultimate & Static: Function or Adaptation
  • Ultimate & Dynamic: Phylogeny or Evolution
  • Proximate & Dynamic: Ontogeny or Development
  • Proximate & Static: Mechanism or Causation

Ultimate is also called Evolutionary, to distinguish it from a connotation of telos or purpose. Static refers to the current form of the organism, and is also called Synchronic or Single Form or Snapshot or Contemporary, etc.  Dynamic refers to the historical changes of the organism, and is also called Diachronic or Sequence or Historical or Chronicle, etc.

Some compare these four questions to Aristotle’s Four Causes, see for example [1] and [2]. However, [1] seems less enthusiastic than the published paper [2]. However, I don’t agree with either completely on the assignment; it seems to me that the Efficient and Final Causes are Dynamic, and the Material and Formal causes are Static. I believe we all agree that the Efficient and Material Causes are Proximate, and Formal and Final Causes are Ultimate. See [3] for comparison. However, I am guided more by the definitions of Static and Dynamic than anything else.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tinbergen%27s_four_questions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaas_Tinbergen

https://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/samples/animal-behaviour-an-introduction-online/index.html

https://www.reed.edu/biology/courses/BIO342/2014_syllabus_old/2014_WEBSITES/khsite/tinenbergen.html

[1] https://www.evphil.com/blog/consciousness-18-tinbergens-four-questions

[2] Vojtńõch Hladk√Ĺ, Jan Havl√≠ńćek / WAS TINBERGEN AN ARISTOTELIAN? COMPARISON OF TINBERGEN‚ÄôS FOUR WHYS AND ARISTOTLE‚ÄôS FOUR CAUSES,
Human Ethology Bulletin 28 No 4 (2013): Special Issue on Tinbergen 3-11

[3] https://equivalentexchange.blog/2015/07/29/evolution-and-genetics/

Aristotle’s Four Causes

Other Images of Tinbergen’s Four Question:

https://www.google.com/search?&q=tinbergen%27s+four+questions&tbm=isch

[*9.63, *10.98]

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The Main Sequence of Star Types

I will scan your star charts.

— Nomad, from Star Trek “The Changeling”

While reading “Entering Space” by Robert Zubrin, I chanced upon the subject of stellar classification. The Morgan-Keenan system goes from O-type, the hottest, to M-type, the coolest (Red dwarfs). Our own sun, Sol, is an example of a G-type star, which are on the cool side yet still hot and bright. Later, other types have been added, for example White Dwarfs are known as D-types. If humankind will someday journey to remote stars, it’s best to memorize this handy list!

The Morgan-Keenan system is as follows:

  • O-type
  • B-type
  • A-type
  • F-type
  • G-type
  • K-type
  • M-type

This is sometimes remembered by the mnemonic “O be a fine gal/guy, kiss me.”

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_sequence

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/O-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M-type_main-sequence_star

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annie_Jump_Cannon

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The Millennial Project: colonizing the galaxy in eight easy steps

The eight “easy” steps of the Millennial Project (MP) are:

  • Foundation (Institutions to promote MP)
  • Aquarius (Colonize and utilize Earth’s oceans)
  • Bifrost (To low Earth orbit and outer space)
  • Asgard (Build a large space station)
  • Avalon (Colonize and utilize the Moon)
  • Elysium (Colonize Mars)
  • Solaria (Colonize the Solar System)
  • Galactia (Then on to the Milky Way)

Further Reading:

Marshall T. Savage / The Millennial Project

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Millennial_Project

https://tmp2.fandom.com/wiki/Main_Page

Robert Zubrin / Entering Space: creating a space-faring civilization

Robert Zubrin / The Case for Mars

https://www.marssociety.org/

Carl Sagan / Pale Blue Dot: a vision of the human future in space

MP reminds me a bit of Olaf Stapledon:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olaf_Stapledon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Last_and_First_Men

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Maker

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The Periodic Table of the Elements

The familiar periodic table of the elements may be overwhelming in its usual initial presentation. You may not have noticed that there are four blocks of elements in the table, and they even have names! All good atomists need to become facile with the chemical elements though, because they are indeed the building blocks of the universe!

The table is usually presented as a partial grid, consisting of 7 rows and 18 (or 32) columns, although there are alternate representations. But columns (C) are called groups (G) and rows (R) are called periods (P)!

Within the grid, elements are arranged in four blocks, with the following properties:

  • s-block: 2C x 7R = 14 (G1-2,18, P1-7) “sharp”
  • p-block: 6C x 6R = 36 (G13-18, P2-7) “principal”
  • d-block: 10C x 4R = 40 (G3-12, P4-7) “diffuse”
  • f-block: 14C x 2R = 28 (between G2 and G3, P6-7) “fundamental”

Note how columns (groups) increase (by four!) as rows (periods) decrease! Blocks are named after electron orbitals which are also named s, p, d, and f.

Thus there are currently 118 elements having a unique “atomic number” in the usual periodic table, with the rows or periods having the following number of elements:

  • P1: 2 (2s)
  • P2: 8 (2s, 6p)
  • P3: 8 (2s, 6p)
  • P4: 18 (2s, 6p, 10d)
  • P5: 18 (2s, 6p, 10d)
  • P6: 32 (2s, 6p, 10d, 14f)
  • P7: 32 (2s, 6p, 10d, 14f)

Note the number of groups increases as the period does. This is due to the properties of electrons and their shells. Familiar elements are scattered throughout the table, although they occur less and less as the atomic number increases. Elements can also occur as different isotopes due to having a differing number of electrons than usual, and so may have a positive or negative charge.

As an homage to the classical four elements, I’ve arranged the blocks as follows: the s-block has the reactive alkali and alkaline metals (fire), the p-block includes the noble gases (plus C, N, and O needed for life as we know it) (air), the d-block has the precious metals like gold, silver, and platinum (plus liquid at room temp mercury but not bromine) (water), and the f-block with the heaviest and often radioactive elements like uranium and plutonium (earth).

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(periodic_table)#s-block

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(periodic_table)#p-block

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(periodic_table)#d-block

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_(periodic_table)#f-block

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table_(electron_configurations)

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Direction of Fit

The notion of “Direction of Fit” can describe several associated concepts, from a specific one in “Speech Act Theory” (SAT) to the more general one in the “Philosophy of Mind” (POM). For SAT, the concept depends on whether words accurately describe the world (word-to-world), or if the world is actually altered by words (world-to-word) (or possibly both or neither). For POM, the concept is generalized to be between mind (or thought) and world, and of course, word could serve to mediate between mind (or thought) and world.

I propose that direction of fit could also be enlarged to encompass the fits of world-to-world and word-to-word.

Perhaps the notion of world fitting to world is tautological, that it is always true by necessity. For any fit of world to world is natural, in as much as we understand it, because anything else would be super-natural. This is the realm of science then, when we try to explain how the mechanism of the world behaves in its ordered operation. I imagine that we could also put engineering and technology in this case, since we are trying to create an artifact in the world that meshes with the normal goings on of nature. If it meshes very poorly, it either breaks or nature does instead.

The notion of word fitting to word is interesting as well. It is not given that words I write will fit with the words that you read, or there is a proper fit between speaking and listening. I guess the art of rhetoric can be placed here, as how we can fashion our words best to convince or explain or engage. In the POM sense, perhaps any art could be included as well, from literature to music to visual arts, since they strive to convey thoughts to thoughts. I am reminded of the notion of the perfect language in accurately describing the world or of complete understanding between minds.

Maybe words describing world could also be science, but perhaps its proper realm should be more of history or the states of human affairs. This is more in agreement with the opposite direction of World-to-Word, or world fitting to word.

Maybe I’m just thinking of a certain fourfold of Richard McKeon, and want to make a correspondence of

  • Word-to-World => Thought
  • World-to-Word => Action
  • Word-to-Word => Word
  • World-to-World => Thing

although I’m not sure this works.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direction_of_fit

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/speech-acts/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_of_reference

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Message_in_the_Bottle#%22The_Delta_Factor%22

https://read.dukeupress.edu/the-philosophical-review/article-abstract/123/4/429/87552/On-the-Very-Idea-of-Direction-of-Fit?redirectedFrom=fulltext

https://www.jstor.org/stable/44290001

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/belief/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intention/

http://www.gavinjensen.com/blog/category/Philosophy+of+Language

Things, Thoughts, Words, and Actions

[*12.96, *12.98]

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The Six Flavors of Quarks

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark

The Standard Model of Particle Physics

Working to Understand the Changing Flavors of Quarks

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eightfold_way_(physics)

[*13.8]

 

The Four Paths of Yoga

According to the Vedanta, the 4 major margas (paths) are Jnana Yoga (the path of wisdom and knowledge), Bhakti Yoga (the path of devotion), Karma Yoga (path of selfless action or service) and Raja Yoga (path of self-discipline):

  • Jnana Yoga: The path of wisdom and knowledge
  • Bhakti Yoga: The path of devotion
  • Karma Yoga: The path of selfless action and service
  • Raja Yoga: The path of self-discipline

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Yogas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhakti_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C4%81ja_yoga

https://artsandculture.google.com/story/the-four-paths-of-yoga/QQURiPuOVM2eIw#

https://chopra.com/articles/the-4-paths-of-yoga

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Build Your Atomic Habits

In Atomic Habits, author James Clear describes the behavior of making and breaking habits in four stages:

  • Cue:
    To increase a habit, make its cue obvious
    To decrease a habit, make its cue invisible
  • Craving:
    To increase a habit, make its craving attractive
    To decrease a habit, make its craving offputting
  • Response:
    To increase a habit, make its response easy
    To decrease a habit, make its response hard
  • Reward:
    To increase a habit, make its reward satisfying
    To decrease a habit, make its reward unfulfilling

Further Reading:

James Clear / Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

https://www.samuelthomasdavies.com/book-summaries/self-help/atomic-habits/

https://aliabdaal.com/book-notes/atomic-habits-summary/

Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

[*13.86]

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Four qua Four

Here is a diagram for a set of four things standing in for each other, as in their being, character, function, or capacity. Qua is a proper English word (from Latin) meaning “as” or “as being” but also “in the function of” or “in the capacity of”. Often used as “A qua A” rather than “A qua B”.

I suppose the diagram could be altered to be four things qua four other things, with apostrophes or something. It could also be altered for a double duality, as shown below, with some nice symmetries.

It is somewhat similar to my diagram of the Tetrameria, but of course arranged differently. The only other example that I can think of as being “Four qua Four” is the Archic Matrix.

Further Reading:

https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php/2591:_Qua

Carl Jung’s Alchemical Tetrameria

https://latin-dictionary.net/definition/32572/quaqua

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sine_qua_non

[*13.90]

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