The Four Paths of Yoga

According to the Vedanta, the 4 major margas (paths) are Jnana Yoga (the path of wisdom and knowledge), Bhakti Yoga (the path of devotion), Karma Yoga (path of selfless action or service) and Raja Yoga (path of self-discipline):

  • Jnana Yoga: The path of wisdom and knowledge
  • Bhakti Yoga: The path of devotion
  • Karma Yoga: The path of selfless action and service
  • Raja Yoga: The path of self-discipline

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Yogas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhakti_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C4%81ja_yoga

https://astroulagam.com.my/lifestyle/discover-4-major-yoga-margas-119468

https://artsandculture.google.com/story/the-four-paths-of-yoga/QQURiPuOVM2eIw#

https://www.that-first.com/category/yoga_basics/article/the-four-paths-of-yoga/

https://chopra.com/articles/the-4-paths-of-yoga

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Build Your Atomic Habits

In Atomic Habits, author James Clear describes the behavior of making and breaking habits in four stages:

  • Cue:
    To increase a habit, make its cue obvious
    To decrease a habit, make its cue invisible
  • Craving:
    To increase a habit, make its craving attractive
    To decrease a habit, make its craving offputting
  • Response:
    To increase a habit, make its response easy
    To decrease a habit, make its response hard
  • Reward:
    To increase a habit, make its reward satisfying
    To decrease a habit, make its reward unfulfilling

Further Reading:

James Clear / Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

https://www.samuelthomasdavies.com/book-summaries/self-help/atomic-habits/

https://aliabdaal.com/book-notes/atomic-habits-summary/

Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

[*13.86]

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Four qua Four

Here is a diagram for a set of four things standing in for each other, as in their being, character, function, or capacity. Qua is a proper English word (from Latin) meaning “as” or “as being” but also “in the function of” or “in the capacity of”. Often used as “A qua A” rather than “A qua B”.

I suppose the diagram could be altered to be four things qua four other things, with apostrophes or something. It could also be altered for a double duality, as shown below, with some nice symmetries.

It is somewhat similar to my diagram of the Tetrameria, but of course arranged differently. The only other example that I can think of as being “Four qua Four” is the Archic Matrix.

Further Reading:

https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php/2591:_Qua

Carl Jung’s Alchemical Tetrameria

https://latin-dictionary.net/definition/32572/quaqua

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sine_qua_non

[*13.90]

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Et in Arcadia Ego

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Et_in_Arcadia_ego

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Et_in_Arcadia_ego_(Guercino)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memento_mori

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mono_no_aware

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sic_transit_gloria_mundi

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanitas

[*10.70]

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Surrounded by Idiots

Here’s another modern-day take on the Four Temperaments, a popular book series by Thomas Erikson called “Surrounded by Idiots.” After the original which is subtitled “The Four Types of Human Behavior and How to Effectively Communicate with Each in Business (and in Life),” he has written sequels titled “Surrounded by Narcissists,” “… by Psychopaths,” “… by Bad Bosses,” and “… by Setbacks”.

I have found a simple chart explaining his original four types using a two-by-two matrix of introvert vs. extrovert and task or issue-oriented vs. relation-oriented, and a review I read indicates that the DISC Theory of personality is the main influence for the author (and which is also related to humorism.)

    • Red: Extrovert and Task/Issue-oriented
    • Yellow: Extrovert and Relation-oriented
    • Blue: Introvert and Tasks/Issue-oriented
    • Green: Introvert and Relation-oriented

Notably the cover art for the series uses four colors for the different types of people: Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue. These colors are sometimes also used by others to denote the Four Temperaments. These four colors are often used for other classification schemes, and even for corporate logos. Also, these four colors are the set union of the three primary colors of light and the (traditional) three primary pigments.

Further Reading:

Thomas Erikson: Surrounded by Idiots

https://www.businessinsider.com/guides/learning/surrounded-by-idiots-book-review

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism

[*13.87]

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Georgia Guidestones, RIP

Georgia Guidestones
Born: March 22, 1980
Died: July 6, 2022

Let These Be
Guidestones
to an Age
of Reason (*)

Capstone with (*) written in Four Ancient Languages

    • Cuneiform
    • Hieroglyphics
    • Greek
    • Sanskrit

Ten Recommendations (**) about

    • Population
    • Environment
    • Governance
    • Spirituality

Four Upright Stones with (**) written in Eight Modern Languages

    • English and Spanish
    • Swahili and Hindi
    • Hebrew and Arabic
    • Chinese and Russian

One Center Stone supporting Capstone for Three Astronometries

    • Finding the Celestial Pole
    • The Sun’s Annual Travel
    • Sun’s Position at Noon over the Year

Fear no more the heat o’ the sun,
Nor the furious winter’s rages;
Thou thy worldly task hast done,
Home art gone, and ta’en thy wages:
Golden lads and girls all must,
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust.

– William Shakespeare (from Cymbeline)

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_Guidestones

https://www.coastalbreezenews.com/news/a-new-world-order-for-the-few-left-behind/article_c811714a-69c5-5889-8cc6-8ce58f7c991a.html

https://www.onlineathens.com/story/news/local/2022/07/11/georgia-guidestones-elbert-county-talk-rebuilding-after-monument-destroyed/10014859002/

https://www.wired.com/2009/04/ff-guidestones/

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/50428/song-fear-no-more-the-heat-o-the-sun-

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The Four-Drive Theory

The Four-Drive Theory of Lawrence and Nohria of the Harvard Business School is a popular model for the motivations of employees within a work environment. They list four drives which need to be in balance for worker happiness and productivity:

    • Drive to Acquire
    • Drive to Bond
    • Drive to Learn
    • Drive to Defend

Further Reading:

Paul R. Lawrence, Nitin Nohria / Driven: how human nature shapes our choices

http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/lawrence_nohria.htm

https://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/driven-the-four-drives-underlying-our-human-nature-driven-how-human-nature-shapes-organizations

Four Drive Model Theory

Images for Four Drive Theory:

https://www.google.com/search?q=four+drive+theory&tbm=isch

Also:

http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/needs.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Fs_(evolution)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership

(Where’s a Wikipedia Page?)

[*13.92, *13.93]

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Linear Logic and the Four Elements

Here is an alignment between two of my favorite topics, the four operators of linear logic and the four elements.

I’ve been wanting to create this eight-fold for a while, and so here it is. I think it looks rather nice.

At this point I should present my reasons for this symbolic amalgam, but I leave it up to you, dear reader.

However, I will write the names of the symbols starting with the upper left and going widdershins…

  • Fire / With
  • Earth / Plus
  • Water / Times
  • Air / Par

[*11.26, *13.82]

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The Diamond Approach Design Method

Again, I have taken a diagram and bent it into my preferred vision. At least the original figures have isosceles right triangles to begin with. However, they were in a left-to-right sequence (ordered by time) instead of a cycle as I have done. On many diagrams of the diamond approach there are indeed loops that return the user to positions earlier in the sequence so I don’t feel too bad.

The steps that are part of the diamond approach are reminiscent of other learning cycles, such as that of Kolb. The original left-to-right sequence emphasizes the order, as well as showing that steps may be divergent or convergent (analytic or synthetic) in their methods. Instead I have denoted divergence by arrows facing away from each other and convergence by arrows facing towards each other.

    • Discover (divergent)
    • Define (convergent)
    • Develop (divergent)
    • Deliver (convergent)

The main creator of the Diamond Approach is A. H. Almaas, who has written many books on spirituality or esoteric subjects such as the Enneagram. Being a skeptical sort, I have no idea if the notions and methods in these books are worth your time, but the goals indeed sound laudable. How do they differ from psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, or other techniques to improve mental health? Further reading may be required before you pay for classes and retreats.

Further Reading:

https://www.diamondapproach.org/home

https://www.diamondapproach.org/almaas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._H._Almaas

https://www.google.com/search?q=the+diamond+approach+design+method&tbm=isch

[*13.74, *13.75]

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The Three Pillars of Stoicism

The Four Cardinal Virtues of Wisdom, Justice, Temperance, and Courage are often linked to the “Three Pillars” of Stoicism: Logics, Ethics, and Physics. Logics and rational thought enables the virtue of (practical) wisdom to produce intelligent assent or rejection. Ethics and moral strivings condition the virtue of justice (and courage) to inform proper action or non-action. Physics and natural constraints temper the virtue of courage (and temperance) by proportionate or bounded desire or aversion.

    • Logics (Rational Domain): Assent for (practical) Wisdom
    • Physics (Natural Domain): Desire for Courage and Temperance (restraint)
    • Ethics (Moral Domain): Action for Justice

Note the mismatch between Four Cardinal Virtues and the Three Pillars. Some add Metaphysics to get Four Pillars, although what domain does it inform? (Supernatural? Speculative? Philosophical?) Also note my use of the term “Logics”. If the British can use the term “Maths” then I can certainly use “Logics,” because logic can now come in many different formulations.

Further Reading:

The Highest Good: An Introduction To The 4 Stoic Virtues

Disciplines, Fields, and Virtues: The Full Stoic System in One Neat Package

Stoicism

The Spheres of Human Understanding

The Four Cardinal Virtues

Images of Logic, Ethics, Physics:

https://www.google.com/search?q=logic+physics+ethics&tbm=isch

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