Archive for the ‘Science’ Category

The Free Energy Principle

November 27, 2018

Below is a link to a fascinating article about Karl Friston, whose research on the “free energy principle” (also known as active inference) tries to explain how biological (or even artificial) systems maintain or even increase their organization. Without much explanation, here are some details. The model is a system with four main variables:

  • Sense (s)
  • Action (a)
  • Internal States (r or μ)
  • Hidden States (ψ)

Sense and action divide the internal states of the system from the hidden states external to it. This division is called a “Markov Blanket”. I’ve tried to show the equations between the variables correctly but I’m not too sure if I have them right. They seem to change from paper to paper. F is an expression of the free energy, but I’m not sure what f is at the moment, except for being some sort of “flow”.

Further Reading:

https://www.wired.com/story/karl-friston-free-energy-principle-artificial-intelligence/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Free_energy_principle

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markov_blanket

http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/15/138/20170792

[*11.6]

<>

 

 

 

The Eight Planets

September 16, 2018

Now that Pluto has been kicked out of the League of Planets (poor Pluto!), with the eight remainders I can present the above diagram.

The Sun and the Moon, not planets either, are usually thought of as a pair. I’ll add them in by themselves for good measure.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planet_symbols

[*10.149]

<>

 

 

The Standard Model of Particle Physics

September 5, 2018

Until a few years ago, the Standard Model of particle physics had sixteen particles verified. Recently, the Higgs Boson was added, so just imagine another triangle hanging off somewhere. Or, alternately, one may combine the Z and W Bosons when adding the Higgs, so a sixteen-fold scheme is maintained.

Also, the Standard Model is much more than a list of these seventeen particles and their attributes. Not shown are a plethora of equations that describe the properties of these entities and their interactions.

I admit that this diagram is not very useful for scientific knowledge, but the reader may contemplate it as they please.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_Model

https://home.cern/about/physics/standard-model

https://physics.info/standard/

[*10.148]

<>

 

The Seasons and the Zodiac

August 22, 2018

This isn’t a bad little diagram of the four seasons along with the twelve zodiac names and symbols. However, it might be oriented wrong by convention or going clockwise instead of counter-clockwise.  Interestingly, old horoscope charts that show what was in the sky (the positions of the zodiac stars and the eight or nine planets in regards to the twelve “astrological houses”) at the time of a person’s birth were shown using the outside ring of twelve triangles instead of the more familiar circle that is used today. The inner square might be for notes or some nice drawing.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zodiac

https://www.completehoroscope.org/envelope-diagram-horoscope.htm

https://equivalentexchange.blog/2014/10/31/the-four-seasons/

[*10.145]

<>

 

 

Ohm’s Law

August 21, 2018

Unfortunately it has finally come to this: enter the sixteenfolds!

  • Voltage = V = P/I = sqrt(P·R) = I·R
  • Resistance = R = V^2/P = V/I = P/I^2
  • Current = I = V/R = sqrt(P/R) = P/V
  • Power = P = I^2·R = V·I = V^2/R

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohm%27s_law

https://equivalentexchange.blog/2013/11/08/ohms-law/

[*8.4, *8.5, *8.8-8.10, *10.62, *10.112]

<>

 

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

June 14, 2018

STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. We often hear that these areas of education and expertise are critical for the development of our modern society. To attract students to these fields, banners and logos are full of bright colors and crisp graphics. In comparison, above is my rather dull diagram. Not very enticing, is it?

Some are now adding Arts to the four, giving STEAM. I think the Arts are important of course, but fives don’t go with my oeuvre.

In addition, I give you a diagram with Chinese substituted for English (科學 技術 工程 數學).

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science,_technology,_engineering,_and_mathematics

https://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=uQMhW4zXG8Wc5gK13ImoBw&q=science+technology+engineering+mathematics&oq=science+technology+engineering+mathematics

[*10.110]

<>

Noether-Pauli-Jung

March 29, 2018

What happens when the fourfold of Noether’s Theorem is spliced together with the fourfold of Pauli-Jung? Both have Space-Time and Matter-Energy. The former has Conservation and Symmetry, and the latter has Causality and Synchronicity.

I had to remind myself that Conservation means consistency (of matter or energy) through time (and space), and Symmetry means consistency (of form) through space (and time), so in some sense they are dualistic.

Combined, one has the three axes of dual concepts, represented above.

Further Reading:

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2012/05/04/noethers-theorem/

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2018/01/23/atom-and-archetype/

[*10.68]

<>

Fourfold Physicalism

February 17, 2018

It is not enough for a wise man to study nature and truth, he should dare state truth for the benefit of the few who are willing and able to think. As for the rest, who are voluntarily slaves of prejudice, they can no more attain truth, than frogs can fly.

— From Man a Machine, by Julien Offray de La Mettrie

Further Reading:

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2012/07/03/structure-function/

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2013/10/09/things-happen/

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2014/02/01/relations-all-the-way-down/

https://equivalentexchange.wordpress.com/2015/06/09/four-primary-relations/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_a_Machine

Notes:

Structures are built from parts.
Parts are reductions of structures.
Functions are assembled from actions.
Actions are the constituents of functions.

[*8.132, *9.104, *10.10]

<>

Enlightenment Now!

February 15, 2018

I want a new enlightenment and I want it now! One replete with:

  • Humanism
  • Reason
  • Science
  • Progress

Or, at least I can read the book.

Further Reading:

Steven Pinker / Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress

http://www.playboy.com/articles/playboy-profile-steven-pinker

Pinker’s twitter feed:

[*10.70]

<>

 

The World Values Survey

January 26, 2018

For a number of years, very interesting research in cultural studies has been produced by the World Values Survey. This survey measures the slippery notion of value as belonging to four types: Survival, Traditional, Self-Expression, and Secular-Rational.

Individual and social values are quantified, resulting in two pairs of value types that are independent, and for each pair, the two types are dependent and inversely proportional:

  • Survival values ⇔ Self-expression values
  • Secular-rational values ⇔ Traditional values

In other words, if survival values are high (say one), self-expression values are low (say zero), and if survival values are low, self-expression values are high. Similarly, secular-rational values are higher if traditional values are lower, etc. So a pair of numbers each between zero and one indicates how an individual or society considers the importance of these values.

These social values are measured and compared in countries around the world, resulting in the Inglehart-Welzel Cultural Map. This map is a scatter plot that clusters similar countries by value pairs, rather than geography. However, countries close in geography are also often fairly close as “value” neighbors on this cultural chart.

One might try to claim that self-expression values and secular-rational values are more “advanced” than survival and traditional values. As a culture obtains more material wealth they are less dependent on using resources for survival, and so can foster more self-expression. Then perhaps as self-expression grows and so independent thought, less dependence on or even tolerance of traditional values encourages increased secular-rational values. But that would be too easy!

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Values_Survey

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inglehart–Welzel_cultural_map_of_the_world

World Values Survey on Twitter:

[*9.170]

<>


%d bloggers like this: