A recent book of introductory philosophy is Timothy Williamson’s Tetralogue: I’m Right, You’re Wrong. Instead of using a dialogue with two viewpoints used by some classical philosophers, Williamson structures his book into a tetralogue, or a conversation with four viewpoints.
The viewpoints are portrayed by four individuals as they enjoy a lengthy train ride: Zac (Relativism), Sarah (Naturalism, Empiricism, Skepticism, Fallibilism, Materialism, Scientism), Bob (Culturalism, Traditionalism, Conservatism, Ancestralism), and Roxana (Rationalism, Logicalism).
Who’s right and who’s wrong? I haven’t read it yet but it looks interesting!
A Twitter account to follow (I didn’t know it would do that):
Knowledge and action are the central relations between mind and world. In action, world is adapted to mind. In knowledge, mind is adapted to world. When world is maladapted to mind, there is a residue of desire. When mind is maladapted to world, there is a residue of belief. Desire aspires to action; belief aspires to knowledge. The point of desire is action; the point of belief is knowledge.
— From Knowledge and Its Limits by Timothy Williamson
Or with some substitutions:
Theory and practice are the central relations between the mental and the physical. In practice, the physical is shaped to the mental. In theory, the mental is shaped to the physical. When the physical is misshaped to the mental, there is a residue of intention. When the mental is misshaped to the physical, there is a residue of attention. Intention aspires to practice; attention aspires to theory. The point of intention is practice; the point of attention is theory.
Also, note the similarity to The Scientific Method.
Timothy Williamson / Knowledge and Its Limits
[*6.24, *6.32, *8.22]