All posts by Martin K. Jones

Direction of Fit

The notion of “Direction of Fit” can describe several associated concepts, from a specific one in “Speech Act Theory” (SAT) to the more general one in the “Philosophy of Mind” (POM). For SAT, the concept depends on whether words accurately describe the world (word-to-world), or if the world is actually altered by words (world-to-word) (or possibly both or neither). For POM, the concept is generalized to be between mind (or thought) and world, and of course, word could serve to mediate between mind (or thought) and world.

I propose that direction of fit could also be enlarged to encompass the fits of world-to-world and word-to-word.

Perhaps the notion of world fitting to world is tautological, that it is always true by necessity. For any fit of world to world is natural, in as much as we understand it, because anything else would be super-natural. This is the realm of science then, when we try to explain how the mechanism of the world behaves in its ordered operation. I imagine that we could also put engineering and technology in this case, since we are trying to create an artifact in the world that meshes with the normal goings on of nature. If it meshes very poorly, it either breaks or nature does instead.

The notion of word fitting to word is interesting as well. It is not given that words I write will fit with the words that you read, or there is a proper fit between speaking and listening. I guess the art of rhetoric can be placed here, as how we can fashion our words best to convince or explain or engage. In the POM sense, perhaps any art could be included as well, from literature to music to visual arts, since they strive to convey thoughts to thoughts. I am reminded of the notion of the perfect language in accurately describing the world or of complete understanding between minds.

Maybe words describing world could also be science, but perhaps its proper realm should be more of history or the states of human affairs. This is more in agreement with the opposite direction of World-to-Word, or world fitting to word.

Maybe I’m just thinking of a certain fourfold of Richard McKeon, and want to make a correspondence of

  • Word-to-World => Thought
  • World-to-Word => Action
  • Word-to-Word => Word
  • World-to-World => Thing

although I’m not sure this works.

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direction_of_fit

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/speech-acts/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triangle_of_reference

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Message_in_the_Bottle#%22The_Delta_Factor%22

https://read.dukeupress.edu/the-philosophical-review/article-abstract/123/4/429/87552/On-the-Very-Idea-of-Direction-of-Fit?redirectedFrom=fulltext

https://www.jstor.org/stable/44290001

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/belief/

https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/intention/

http://www.gavinjensen.com/blog/category/Philosophy+of+Language

Things, Thoughts, Words, and Actions

[*12.96, *12.98]

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The Six Flavors of Quarks

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quark

The Standard Model of Particle Physics

Working to Understand the Changing Flavors of Quarks

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eightfold_way_(physics)

[*13.8]

 

The Four Paths of Yoga

According to the Vedanta, the 4 major margas (paths) are Jnana Yoga (the path of wisdom and knowledge), Bhakti Yoga (the path of devotion), Karma Yoga (path of selfless action or service) and Raja Yoga (path of self-discipline):

  • Jnana Yoga: The path of wisdom and knowledge
  • Bhakti Yoga: The path of devotion
  • Karma Yoga: The path of selfless action and service
  • Raja Yoga: The path of self-discipline

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Yogas

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jnana_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karma_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhakti_yoga

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R%C4%81ja_yoga

https://astroulagam.com.my/lifestyle/discover-4-major-yoga-margas-119468

https://artsandculture.google.com/story/the-four-paths-of-yoga/QQURiPuOVM2eIw#

https://www.that-first.com/category/yoga_basics/article/the-four-paths-of-yoga/

https://chopra.com/articles/the-4-paths-of-yoga

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Build Your Atomic Habits

In Atomic Habits, author James Clear describes the behavior of making and breaking habits in four stages:

  • Cue:
    To increase a habit, make its cue obvious
    To decrease a habit, make its cue invisible
  • Craving:
    To increase a habit, make its craving attractive
    To decrease a habit, make its craving offputting
  • Response:
    To increase a habit, make its response easy
    To decrease a habit, make its response hard
  • Reward:
    To increase a habit, make its reward satisfying
    To decrease a habit, make its reward unfulfilling

Further Reading:

James Clear / Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

https://www.samuelthomasdavies.com/book-summaries/self-help/atomic-habits/

https://aliabdaal.com/book-notes/atomic-habits-summary/

Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones

[*13.86]

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Four qua Four

Here is a diagram for a set of four things standing in for each other, as in their being, character, function, or capacity. Qua is a proper English word (from Latin) meaning “as” or “as being” but also “in the function of” or “in the capacity of”. Often used as “A qua A” rather than “A qua B”.

I suppose the diagram could be altered to be four things qua four other things, with apostrophes or something. It could also be altered for a double duality, as shown below, with some nice symmetries.

It is somewhat similar to my diagram of the Tetrameria, but of course arranged differently. The only other example that I can think of as being “Four qua Four” is the Archic Matrix.

Further Reading:

https://www.explainxkcd.com/wiki/index.php/2591:_Qua

Carl Jung’s Alchemical Tetrameria

https://latin-dictionary.net/definition/32572/quaqua

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sine_qua_non

[*13.90]

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Et in Arcadia Ego

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Et_in_Arcadia_ego

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Et_in_Arcadia_ego_(Guercino)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memento_mori

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mono_no_aware

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sic_transit_gloria_mundi

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanitas

[*10.70]

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Surrounded by Idiots

Here’s another modern-day take on the Four Temperaments, a popular book series by Thomas Erikson called “Surrounded by Idiots.” After the original which is subtitled “The Four Types of Human Behavior and How to Effectively Communicate with Each in Business (and in Life),” he has written sequels titled “Surrounded by Narcissists,” “… by Psychopaths,” “… by Bad Bosses,” and “… by Setbacks”.

I have found a simple chart explaining his original four types using a two-by-two matrix of introvert vs. extrovert and task or issue-oriented vs. relation-oriented, and a review I read indicates that the DISC Theory of personality is the main influence for the author (and which is also related to humorism.)

    • Red: Extrovert and Task/Issue-oriented
    • Yellow: Extrovert and Relation-oriented
    • Blue: Introvert and Tasks/Issue-oriented
    • Green: Introvert and Relation-oriented

Notably the cover art for the series uses four colors for the different types of people: Red, Yellow, Green, and Blue. These colors are sometimes also used by others to denote the Four Temperaments. These four colors are often used for other classification schemes, and even for corporate logos. Also, these four colors are the set union of the three primary colors of light and the (traditional) three primary pigments.

Further Reading:

Thomas Erikson: Surrounded by Idiots

https://www.businessinsider.com/guides/learning/surrounded-by-idiots-book-review

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humorism

[*13.87]

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Georgia Guidestones, RIP

Georgia Guidestones
Born: March 22, 1980
Died: July 6, 2022

Let These Be
Guidestones
to an Age
of Reason (*)

Capstone with (*) written in Four Ancient Languages

    • Cuneiform
    • Hieroglyphics
    • Greek
    • Sanskrit

Ten Recommendations (**) about

    • Population
    • Environment
    • Governance
    • Spirituality

Four Upright Stones with (**) written in Eight Modern Languages

    • English and Spanish
    • Swahili and Hindi
    • Hebrew and Arabic
    • Chinese and Russian

One Center Stone supporting Capstone for Three Astronometries

    • Finding the Celestial Pole
    • The Sun’s Annual Travel
    • Sun’s Position at Noon over the Year

Fear no more the heat o’ the sun,
Nor the furious winter’s rages;
Thou thy worldly task hast done,
Home art gone, and ta’en thy wages:
Golden lads and girls all must,
As chimney-sweepers, come to dust.

– William Shakespeare (from Cymbeline)

Further Reading:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_Guidestones

https://www.coastalbreezenews.com/news/a-new-world-order-for-the-few-left-behind/article_c811714a-69c5-5889-8cc6-8ce58f7c991a.html

https://www.onlineathens.com/story/news/local/2022/07/11/georgia-guidestones-elbert-county-talk-rebuilding-after-monument-destroyed/10014859002/

https://www.wired.com/2009/04/ff-guidestones/

https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/50428/song-fear-no-more-the-heat-o-the-sun-

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The Four-Drive Theory

The Four-Drive Theory of Lawrence and Nohria of the Harvard Business School is a popular model for the motivations of employees within a work environment. They list four drives which need to be in balance for worker happiness and productivity:

    • Drive to Acquire
    • Drive to Bond
    • Drive to Learn
    • Drive to Defend

Further Reading:

Paul R. Lawrence, Nitin Nohria / Driven: how human nature shapes our choices

http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/lawrence_nohria.htm

https://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/driven-the-four-drives-underlying-our-human-nature-driven-how-human-nature-shapes-organizations

Four Drive Model Theory

Images for Four Drive Theory:

https://www.google.com/search?q=four+drive+theory&tbm=isch

Also:

http://changingminds.org/explanations/needs/needs.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Fs_(evolution)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership

(Where’s a Wikipedia Page?)

[*13.92, *13.93]

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Linear Logic and the Four Elements

Here is an alignment between two of my favorite topics, the four operators of linear logic and the four elements.

I’ve been wanting to create this eight-fold for a while, and so here it is. I think it looks rather nice.

At this point I should present my reasons for this symbolic amalgam, but I leave it up to you, dear reader.

However, I will write the names of the symbols starting with the upper left and going widdershins…

  • Fire / With
  • Earth / Plus
  • Water / Times
  • Air / Par

[*11.26, *13.82]

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