The Tetralemma is a list that is supposed to exhaust all logical possibilities. Something is either X, or not X, or both X and not X, or neither X nor not X. Nagarjuna’s Fourfold Negation expresses a paradox by negating the Tetralemma, and asking what is not X, nor not X, nor both X and not X, nor neither X nor not X.
The Semiotic Square is an analytical tool to explore relationships between two semiotic signs, usually considered opposites of each other. The S1 and S2 in the figure are the signs in opposition, so that S2 is the dual of S1. S1+~S2 (S1 and not S2) would be X, ~S1+S2 would be not X, S1+S2 would be both X and not X, and ~S1+~S2 would be neither X nor not X.
2 thoughts on “The Tetralemma and Semiotic Square”