A Study in Synthesis

An early work (1934) in the study of fourfolds is James H. Cousins’ “A Study in Synthesis”, which is available for downloading at the link below.

Cousins’ key fourfold is

  • Intuition
  • Cognition
  • Emotion
  • Action

which is similar to Jung’s psychological types except Action replaces Sensation.

Each fourth also has two movements (passive and active), and two sub-movements (subjective and objective) (see Fig. 20):

  • Intuition:
    • Illumination
      • Cosmic
      • Individual
    • Inspiration
      • Creative Intention
      • Creative Imagination
  • Cognition:
    • Contemplation (Philosophy)
      • Metaphysical
      • Pragmatical
    • Observation (Science)
      • Pure
      • Applied
  • Emotion:
    • Aspiration (Religion)
      • Mystical
      • Cermonial
    • Creation (Art)
      • Idealistic
      • Realistic
  • Action:
    • Organization
      • Ideas
      • Materials
    • Execution
      • Subjective
      • Objective

Cousins was an influence to Patrick Geddes, renowned as a town planner, who had several fourfolds of his own.

Further Reading:

James H. Cousins / A Study in Synthesis

https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.501469

James Cousins (22 Jul 1873 – 20 Feb 1956): An Effort of Synthesis

http://hodgers.com/mike/patrickgeddes/feature.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Cousins

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