Is analogy or metaphor the root of thinking? Some thinkers think so. But what exactly is analogy?
Looking at various lists of analogies of the A:B::C:D motif, I have distilled them into four groups: Relational, Hierarchical, Linguistical, and Mathematical. Are there analogies that don’t fit this scheme?
Object / characteristic
Agent / object, action
Cause / effect
Source / product
Classification, category, type, membership
Whole / part
General / specific
Contrast, degree, intensity
George Lakoff, Mark Johnson / Metaphors We Live By
Douglas Hofstadter, Emmanuel Sander / Surfaces and Essences: analogy as the fuel and fire of thinking, Basic Books (2013)
Noah Roderick / The Being of Analogy, Open Humanities Press (2016)
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